Minimum Support Price
Govt of India has taken a number of initiatives for socio economic development of tribals and recognizing the critical importance...
About TRIFED
Tribals constitute 8.60% of the total population of the country, numbering 104.28 million (2011 Census) and cover about 15% of the...
Training
TRIFED in its endeavor to develop the marketing of minor forest produce is engaged in skill up gradation and capacity building ...
MFPNET
MFPNET is a network of stakeholders in the trade of MFPs which includes individuals, agencies, institutions etc interested in development of MFP.
Retail Marketing
TRIFED aims to improve the livelihood of the tribal communities by creating a sustainable market and create business opportunities ...

Procurement Processes

STATE MINOR FOREST PRODUCE
Bamboo Tendu leaves Other MFPs
Andhra Pradesh Area under bamboo is managed in two ways: 50% by the Van Sanrakshan Samitis (VSSs) and 50% where there are no VSSs, directly by the Forest Department. The VSS is elected by the people of the villages that are near the forest/ bamboo. In a village visited (Krishnapuram), two members from each family formed part of the VSS. There is a managing committee of the VSS, which includes the Forest Guard of the area.  The VSS makes an action plan for the area which includes various activities for regeneration and preservation as well as extraction of bamboo. The tendu leaves collected bt the collectors (Beedi Leaves Labourer) will be purchased as the notified khallas of the units as per the collection rates fixed by the Government. There are weekly shandies in which thousands of people come and sell their produce especially in the months from January to May. MFP is bought by GCC agents from these shandies.
Chhattisgarh Information not available Tendu leaves are plucked and bundled by tribals and collected by a ‘Phad Munshi’ appointed by the society at the local level, who makes them available to the Block Level Society. The Phad Munshi is paid an honorarium of Rs, 12-14 per ‘bag’ (1000 bundles). This is reported to be highly inadequate. Other nationalized MFPs are also collected by the phad munshi as for tendu. For the rest, gatherers sell their collections in local haats/ weekly shanties to private traders.
Maharashtra The entire area is divided into sections, which are leased out to paper mills or other industries by the Forest Department. The industry brings its own labourers  or  hires local people (most often tribal communities) and pays them labour (wage) rates to harvest bamboo from the leased out section. The FD also allows around 150-200 bamboo stalks per family to be harvested by the burood or basod communities. These communities are also allowed to collect bamboo shreds to make bamboo products. Bamboo collection for any other purpose by the local communities is strictly prohibited. Entire tendu collection area is divided into units based on the quality of the leaves. After auction, which ends by February, the contractor or licensee has to make arrangements for appointment of ‘phad-munshi’, who collects form the primary collectors. Presently, primary collectors are paid is Rs.105/- for every 100 bundles (1 bundle= 70 leaves) of tendu leaves by the contractors. The contractor also pays the phadi-munshi (approx. Rs.4000/- in 2010), transportation charges, rent for go-downs, besides the auction amount (termed “royalty”). At the village level, 'adivasi' societies of MFP gatherers have ben formed under the Societies Cooperative Act. MDTDC procures through 456 purchase centres in Schedule V areas along with other agricultural commodities from the 'adivasi societies' at the gram level. The gatherers can also deposit their daily collections at the purchase centres. At the centres, all items procured are graded by the designate 'Grader' or 'Marketing Inspector' (MSCTDC employee). Each purchase centre has a Centre Incharge (Cooperative Society employee), who submits daily reports at Sub-regional Office
Madhya Pradesh Information not available Tendu harvesting areas are leased out to the private traders through open bidding system. The traders (contractors) then make arrangements for collection of tendu leaves in their designate areas. "Phad Munshis' in MP are chosen by the gatherers and not the private contractor and are usually trusted persons of families traditionally engaged in the work. The Munshi is paid by the contractor (payment for 2010 was Rs. 14 per standard bag). His responsibilities include procurement of tendu leaf bundles from collectors on daily basis during the season, drying of the bundles, making standard bags (1 std.bag= 1000 bundles or 50,000 leaves) and making entries of payments made to collectors in the 'tendu patta' cards. The collections are then transported to go downs by the private contractors. These go downs are either taken on rent by private contractors or they may be the Cooperative Societies' own go downs. Cost of transportation is also borne by the contractor - Nationalised MFPs namely sal seed, kullu gum and lac resin are procured exclusively by MP State MFP Cooperative Federation in a similar manner to the procurement of tendu, except that tenders are not issued for these MFPs. The gatherers directly sell these MFPs to the Federation at the designate centres. All other non-nationalised items are open for free trade in the markets.  
Jharkhand The ownership rights of bamboo are vested with Jharkhand Forest Development Corporation. Since 2003, however, the JFDC can harvest bamboo from forest areas subject to approval of working plans by the Centre. These working plans made by the State Forest department have yet not been approved, hence harvesting of bamboo has officially been put on the hold. The traditional bamboo-weaving community in Jharkhand called the ‘turis’ have to obtain permits from the respective District Forest Office to harvest bamboo from forest areas. Whether, at present, they could manage to obtain permits without hassles could not be confirmed from field-observation. Kendu leaves are plucked by the tribals, bundled and brought to the ‘khalihan’ where the ‘Munshi’ collects. The ‘Munshi’ supervises the drying of the leaves and keeps an account of the daily collection. The process of drying takes around 9-10 days after which standard bags are made, each consisting of 1000 bundles. Ten ‘khalihans’ report to one depot and from there the payment is disbursed for the ‘khalihans’. The trader who has won the bid for the area makes the payment to the gatherers at the site of the ‘khalihan’ in the presence of the Ranger and the Munshi. The Munshi keeps a record of the payments made to each family, a copy of which is submitted to the Ranger Open for free trading in the markets. Collectors bring their collections to local haats which normally function once a week. Payments in the form of kind (barter) were reported to be prevalent. Exploitation by private traders is also reported. For example, half a kg.of chironji would be exchanged for three fistful of salt. (Chironji has a huge export value in the middle-east). JHAMFCO Federation (government agency) has begun purchasing of MFPs from tribals at local haats, through their network of cooperative societies. The societies play the role of 'middle-men', purchasing MFPs from collectors at rates decided by the Federation and then transporting it to the storage go downs. The societies are reported to get immediate payments from the Federation.   
Odisha Bamboo is cut and traded departmentally through the District Bamboo Development Agency.  In some parts of the State, Joint forest management committees (JFMCs) are also involved. The bamboo is then handed over to the Forest Corporation, which sells it to paper mills through tenders Tendu leaves are collected at local centres called ‘podhis’. These may be thatch- roofed structures or even small pucca structures. A ‘podhi munshi’, engaged by the State Forest Department, mans the place. The munshi along with 2 labourers dries the leaves (duration is about 8 man days for proper drying), grades and bundles them into 5 kg. bundles each. 12 such bundles make 1 standard bag. Thus each standard bag = 60 kg. Subsequently, these are transferred to go downs and delivered to the OFDC. Tendu leaf plucking is banned in sanctuary area, which goes against the spirit of PESA as well as FRA. In these areas, the leaves are smuggled out and sold to private traders Since 2002, the remaining 69 MFPs have been ‘transferred’ to Panchayats. This in effect means that private traders buy the same. However, the price is fixed by the Panchayat Samiti, and traders have to register with the Gram Panchayat, which charges a registration fee of Rs. 100 per trader. There is a long chain of middlemen in the sale of MFPs (usually at least three). There is one person within the village who collects all MFPs, and then supplies them to traders.  However for Siyali leaf, which is collected in large quantities, better marketing avenues are available at the district level and gatherers sell at the district level, not to the village trader. In some areas, pharmaceutical companies have begun to buy MFPs that have medicinal value directly from the traders
Gujarat Managed by the Forest department through its JFMCs. A total of 324 JFMCs exist of which 155 have bank accounts. 60% members of each JFMC are the village residents, the rest coming from the Forest dept. Field visit to Dangs district (largest quantity of bamboo is harvested here) revealed that the JFMCs or ‘baans mandli’ are formed by village residents on payment of RS.55 as registration fee. One mandli on average has 55 members. Bamboo harvesting begins after diwali (autumn) and continues for 4-5 months. The harvested bamboo is primarily for JK paper mill located in Songadh, Tapi dist. Each harvestor earns Rs.400-500/- plus Rs.400 (paid by paper mill) for 1 tonne bamboo cut. Payment made by the paper mill is deposited in the joint account of a nationalized bank. The account is jointly held by the president of the mandli and the Range Forest Officer. There is a provision for each of the mandli members to get 500 bamboo stalks free from the Forest dept. However it was reported during interactions that none of the members received this benefit. The phad-munshi, here, is a hereditary appointee. He is paid by the private trader who has won the auction for the particular area. In Gujarat, entire family gets involved during the collection period. Collectors bring their collections (fresh leaves) to the ‘phadi’ in the form of “podis”. (1 podi= 50 leaves). Phad munshi supervises drying of leaves and then bagging them i.e.arranging them into lots of 1000 podis which make 1 std.bag. Children are employed for the task of drying the leaves (Rs.3 is earned for drying of 1 podi). Phad munshi keeps a ‘kachcha record’ of the daily payments made to collectors. Unlike Maharashtra, Jharkhand and MP, tendu patta cards are not distributed among the collectors. Therefore no proof of earnings available with the collectors. On an average collectors earn Rs.2800/- for a fortnight of collection (average period of tendu leaf plucking) i.e. they earn Rs.200/-approx.per day (@55 paise per podi) Mohua flower and seeds and all varieties of gums are procured exclusively by the GSFDC. They have appointed collection agents in villages, who earn 10% commission for the procurement made from the tribals on behalf of the Corporation. The remaining MFPs are open for free trade. Tribal communities are free to sell them to the GSFDC or the private traders. Trading for these MFPs is usually done at weekly haats.
  Managed by the Forest department through its JFMCs. A total of 324 JFMCs exist of which 155 have bank accounts. 60% members of each JFMC are the village residents, the rest coming from the Forest dept. Field visit to Dangs district (largest quantity of bamboo is harvested here) revealed that the JFMCs or ‘baans mandli’ are formed by village residents on payment of RS.55 as registration fee. One mandli on average has 55 members. The phad-munshi, here, is a hereditary appointee. He is paid by the private trader who has won the auction for the particular area. In Gujarat, entire family gets involved during the collection period. Collectors bring their collections (fresh leaves) to the ‘phadi’ in the form of “podis”. (1 podi= 50 leaves). Phad munshi supervises drying of leaves and then bagging them i.e.arranging them into lots of 1000 podis which make 1 std.bag. Children are employed for the task of drying the leaves (Rs.3 is earned for drying of 1 podi). Phad munshi keeps a ‘kachcha record’ of the daily payments made to collectors. Unlike Maharashtra, Jharkhand and MP, tendu patta cards are not distributed among the collectors. Therefore no proof of earnings available with the collectors.  
  There is a provision for each of the mandli members to get 500 bamboo stalks free from the Forest dept. However it was reported during interactions that none of the members received this benefit. On an average collectors earn Rs.2800/- for a fortnight of collection (average period of tendu leaf plucking) i.e. they earn Rs.200/-approx.per day (@55 paise per podi)